The benefits of biodiversity are closely related to
the economic values they represent and their impact
on sustainable development. Species and their physiological
processes, e.g. biomass production or biochemical processes,
have always been considered on a material basis and
as renewable capital for the primary production sector
(e.g. agriculture, forestry or fisheries).
The benefits of biodiversity conservation can be categorised
I. BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES
II. ECOSYSTEM SERVICES
of water resources
formation and protection
storage and cycling
breakdown and absorption
to climate stability
from unpredictable events
III. SOCIAL BENEFITS
education and monitoring
The three categories mentioned each can be related
to economic impacts. These impact can be
- direct in the sense that they have direct economic
value, like medicine, wood, tourism, or,
- indirect in the sense that the economic value follows
from a better economic and often sustainable infrastructure,
like research, education and protection measures.
Biodiversity conservation is one of the most important aspects of ICZM . Therefore,
the benefits of ICZM given in the "Principles of ICZM" module under "Why ICZM?"-"Benefits"
are applicable here.
Example: Sustainable tourism development and biodiversity
conservation, Belek, Turkey
Belek is a coastal village of Serik district that is
located 40 km away from Antalya City. Regional boundaries
are Aksu Stream on the west, Acisu Stream on the east,
the Mediterranean Sea on the south and the Tahtali Mountain
on the north.
- Belek region has been defined before 1990 as one
of the most important sea turtle nesting sites along
the Turkish Mediterranean coast.
- One of the most outstanding characteristics of Belek
is a 29 km long coastline formed by a coastal dune.
The wide sand dune areas and the beautiful forests
with regional characteristic plants make the area
very important in terms of biodiversity.
- There are 11 different systems such as the sea,
sand dune, forest, pasture, marsh land, muddy plain,
canal, agricultural area, residential area, vineyard
and mountainous area in Belek which forms many different
- The area is a very attractive region both for local
and international tourism. By the year 1995, 18 hotels
were in service with a bed capacity of 15,000. The
tourism development is continuing with the construction
of new hotels and secondary houses.
- The nearby Serik Plain is well known for its agricultural
fertility. Agriculture and greenhouses are extensive
and developed in the region.
ICZM in Belek
Belek Tourism Investors Association, BETUYAB is a management
association founded in 1988 by investing companies of
the region with the support and leading skills of the
Ministry of Tourism. Every company investing in the
Belek Tourism Centre is obligated to be a member of
BETUYAB. BETUYAB aims to establish sustainable tourism
in Belek. BETUYAB's goals and activities are realized
through cooperation between the investors, local inhabitants,
official associations and establishments and relevant
ministries. It is responsible for the infrastructure
including the water supply, wastewater collection and
treatment, communication, transportation, solid waste
management and so on. These facilities are all required
for tourism development. Various nature conservation
projects, protocols and collective work have been done
with NGOs and universities to investigate the ecological
infrastructure and its regional diversity and to publish
documents on biological diversity.
Organised and institutionalised integrated management
is an adequate way to stimulate sustainable development
in a coastal area. The Belek Tourism Investors Association
are a good example of this in attempting to co-ordinate
sustainable development, economical growth and biodiversity
conservation amongst private companies, NGO's and Governmental
Example: Curonian Spit, Russia
The Curonian Spit is one of the largest accumulative
landforms in the Baltic Sea. The site is on the World
Heritage List as an international Russian/ Lithuanian
cultural complex. Its geographical position and relief
demonstrate the uniqueness and peculiarity of the Spit.
The main terrain elements are comprised of dune complexes,
which are among the highest in Europe (up to 68 m in
height), stretching along the peninsula for over 70
Due to its geographical position and north- east to
south- west orientation, the Spit is a "directing line"
for many migrating bird species. It connects migrating
birds flying from northwestern Russia, Finland and the
Eastern Baltic countries to Middle and Southern Europe.
Every spring and fall 10 to 20 million migrating birds
pass over the Curonian Spit and a considerable number
stop to feed and rest there. Because migrating birds
become so highly concentrated on the Spit it has turned
into an important link in the chain of natural protected
areas situated along the White Sea known as the Baltic
flyway. Among the migrating bird populations are many
rare and endangered species listed in the Red Books
of Russia, Europe and worldwide.
The Curonian Spit landscapes were not purely a result
of natural processes, but also due to human activity,
and are an example of harmonious interaction between
nature and human beings. The tribe of Kursiai, who inhabited
the Curonian Spit for a many years have now disappeared
but their ethnographic heritage is still visible. The
landscape of a fishing village buried under sand dunes
in the 18th - 19th centuries can still be found here.
The Spit is rich in cultural heritage items. Protective
engineering structures unique in their size are very
important from a history, science and art point of view.
Fishing settlements, archaeological sites and religious
architectural structures are perfectly integrated into
the landscape. The Curonian Spit is a wonderful natural
phenomenon, hardly comparable in its beauty and scenery
to any other area in the Baltic region. The diverse
and strongly differentiating dune relief of the Curonian
Spit combined with the green of the forests, bright
whiteness of sandy beaches and unlimited stretches of
the Baltic Sea, all represent important aesthetic values.