approaches include methods and tools that protect
species, genetic varieties and habitats in the wild.
It is a favourable approach amongst ecologists and
conservationists to protect habitats and ecosystems.
approaches include methods that remove plants, animals
and microbial species and genetic varieties from their
environment. These are popular amongst agriculturalists
and species-orientated biologists, and helps the maintenance
of samples of species.
- Restoration and rehabilitation approaches include
methods that draw upon in-situ and ex-situ tools to
re-establish species, genetic varieties, communities,
populations, habitats and ecological processes. Ecological
restoration usually involves the reconstruction of
natural and semi-natural ecosystems on degraded lands.
This includes the reintroduction of most native species,
while ecological rehabilitation involves the repair
of ecosystem processes.
- Major land-use approaches include tools and strategies
in forestry, fisheries, agriculture, wildlife management
and tourism. These incorporate protection, sustainable
use and equity criteria and guidelines on management
objectives and practices. Since these land-use approaches
dominate most landscapes and the near shore coastal
zone, they are approaches where often the greatest
reward for investments in biodiversity management
will be found.
- Policy and institutional approaches include methods
that limit the use of land resources. This happens
through zoning schemes and the use of incentives and
tax policies to foster particular land-use practices
and to create and enforce land tenure arrangements
that promote stewardship. The establishment of easements
and the arrangements between public agencies and private
interests that are seeking to establish landscape
characteristics favourable to biodiversity are also
Common Eider Ducks
The Common Eider duck is a widely distributed large
bird, which was almost eliminated along the coast of
the White Sea due to egg collectors and nest consumption.
Since 1930 a large part of the coastline of the Kandalaksha
Bay, and about a hundred of small islands (White
Sea), was declared a strictly protected area. This was
to protect the Eider ducks during their nesting season
and while the duckling were growing up. During this
time both hunting, fishing and even visiting of these
areas has been forbidden or strongly regulated. Currently
the population of the common Eider in the White sea
exceeds 5000 - 8000, which is more than there were at
the beginning of the 20th century.