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  1. In-situ approaches include methods and tools that protect species, genetic varieties and habitats in the wild. It is a favourable approach amongst ecologists and conservationists to protect habitats and ecosystems.
  2. Ex-situ approaches include methods that remove plants, animals and microbial species and genetic varieties from their environment. These are popular amongst agriculturalists and species-orientated biologists, and helps the maintenance of samples of species.
  3. Restoration and rehabilitation approaches include methods that draw upon in-situ and ex-situ tools to re-establish species, genetic varieties, communities, populations, habitats and ecological processes. Ecological restoration usually involves the reconstruction of natural and semi-natural ecosystems on degraded lands. This includes the reintroduction of most native species, while ecological rehabilitation involves the repair of ecosystem processes.
  4. Major land-use approaches include tools and strategies in forestry, fisheries, agriculture, wildlife management and tourism. These incorporate protection, sustainable use and equity criteria and guidelines on management objectives and practices. Since these land-use approaches dominate most landscapes and the near shore coastal zone, they are approaches where often the greatest reward for investments in biodiversity management will be found.
  5. Policy and institutional approaches include methods that limit the use of land resources. This happens through zoning schemes and the use of incentives and tax policies to foster particular land-use practices and to create and enforce land tenure arrangements that promote stewardship. The establishment of easements and the arrangements between public agencies and private interests that are seeking to establish landscape characteristics favourable to biodiversity are also important.

Common Eider Ducks

The Common Eider duck is a widely distributed large bird, which was almost eliminated along the coast of the White Sea due to egg collectors and nest consumption.

Since 1930 a large part of the coastline of the Kandalaksha Bay, and about a hundred of small islands (White Sea), was declared a strictly protected area. This was to protect the Eider ducks during their nesting season and while the duckling were growing up. During this time both hunting, fishing and even visiting of these areas has been forbidden or strongly regulated. Currently the population of the common Eider in the White sea exceeds 5000 - 8000, which is more than there were at the beginning of the 20th century.


 


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