ICZM and Russian legislation

This is an extraction from the document prepared for HELCOM ICZM State of the Art Report

Authority

Special state agencies responsible for ICZM in the Russian Federation are absent. Definition of a structure and authorities of state institutions is still a problem for the control of coastal areas.
On the federal level of jurisdiction, several agencies are responsible for nature conservation. Main administrative body for that task is Ministry for nature resources with its departments of Protected areas and Biodiversity conservation. These two departments are responsible to supervise and manage all the activities on the federal level protected areas (strict scientific protected areas - "zapovedniki", and national parks) and all the activities related to rare and threatened species. The department of ecological expertise is responsible to organise the evaluation for any environment impact assessment. According to the delineation of rights between federal and regional competence, all the projects in coastal waters are under the federal jurisdiction and have to pass the ecological expertise on federal level.

Protection of marine resources in coastal and exclusive economical zones is a responsibility of Marine Boundary Forces, the special department of Federal Boundary Guard. Wise-use and protection of resources for fishery (including invertebrates and marine mammals) are under the supervision of State Committee for Fishery which is responsible to adopt the Rules for Fishery and estimate the available stock for each area and species. Department of Hunting and Game belongs to Ministry of Agriculture. This department is responsible for management and protection of game species.

On the regional level regional branches of correspondent ministries have to co-ordinate their activities with regional administration. Regional administration is responsible to create and manage regional level protected areas, such as nature parks, nature monuments and reserves. Regional administration is also responsible to adopt the Regional rules for fishery and regional rules for game and hunting in frame of federal documents. Regional lists of protected and threatened species are also compiled signed by regional authorities.

Policy

The mainstream of Russia's conservation policy is in accordance to international agreements and conventions signed by country. The milestones have been determined by global Convention on Biodiversity, Ramsar Convention on the protection of wetlands and regional conventions and agreements such as Helsinki Convention on protection of the Baltic Sea.

On the federal level several documents determine the conservation strategy. General guidelines for conservation policy are provided by the Concept of sustainable development (2002) mentioned above. The approaches to further development of federal network of the protected areas are identified in General Scheme of Protected Areas. Territories proposed for zapovedniki and national parks are listed there. Wetlands, which have to be protected under the Ramsar convention, are listed in the List of the Ramsar Sites and proposed areas are included in periodically updated List of Proposed Ramsar Sites. The Red Data Book of Russian Federation includes species under threat, which could not be taken off without special permission. The habitats of those species are under the protection and any type of activity, which could destroy the object of protection, are prohibited.
On the regional level the regional development plans could include special parts on natural and biodiversity conservation. The urgent measures for conservation of any territory or species can be adopted by regional administration.
Legislation
The existing system of the national legislation of the Russian Federation does not cover coastal protection or ICZM as a special issue.

The protection of biotopes of the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is regulated by:

  • Law on Environmental Protection (2002)
  • Law on Environment Impact Assessment (1995)
  • Law on Fauna (1995)
  • Water Code (1995)
  • Land-use Code (2001)
  • Forest Code (1997)
  • The rules for prevention of coastal seawater pollution (1983)
  • Sanitary rules and norms for prevention of coastal seawater pollution at the regions of public water consumption (1988)
  • Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers about establishing boundaries and regime for sanitary protection of recreation areas (1982)
  • Regulations on the National park Kurshskaya kosa.