Biodiversity is a matter of international concern.
The character of biodiversity demands that it is managed
in an international context including commitment and
policy development. Local legislation should thus emerge
from internationally co-ordinated conventions.
The Convention on Biological Diversity
In 1992, the largest-ever meeting of world leaders
took place at the United Nations Conference on Environment
and Development in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. An historic
set of agreements was signed at the "Earth Summit",
including two binding agreements, the Convention on
Climate Change, which targets industrial and other emissions
of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, and the
Convention on Biological Diversity, the first global
agreement on the conservation and sustainable use of
biological diversity. The biodiversity treaty gained
rapid and widespread acceptance. Over 150 governments
signed the document at the Rio conference, and since
then more than 175 countries have ratified the agreement.
The Convention has three main goals:
- The conservation of biodiversity,
- Sustainable use of the components of biodiversity,
- Sharing the benefits arising from the commercial
and other utilization of genetic resources in a fair
and equitable way
The Convention is comprehensive in its goals, and deals
with an issue so vital to humanity's future, that it
stands as a landmark in international law. It recognizes-for
the first time-that the conservation of biological diversity
is "a common concern of humankind" and is
an integral part of the development process. The agreement
covers all ecosystems, species, and genetic resources.
It links traditional conservation efforts to the economic
goal of using biological resources sustainably. It sets
principles for the fair and equitable sharing of the
benefits arising from the use of genetic resources,
notably those destined for commercial use. It also covers
the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology, addressing
technology development and transfer, benefit-sharing
and biosafety. Importantly, the Convention is legally
binding; countries that join it are obliged to implement
More information on the Convention
on Biological Diversity can be found here.
Local legislation is often present from the past. However,
globalisation and the related problems due to climate
change request for internationally co-ordinated action.
Ideally, this will result in intenational agreements
with commitment and enforcement by governments on local
It is a complex and time consuming task to develop
local legislation in that framework. The following list
provides an overview of legislation and measures that
can be developed. It goes without saying that (international
and national) co-ordination of these methods are essential
for having an efficient and effective national legislative
and traditional legal measures
use of protected areas
protection of representative habitat types
processes and activities detrimental to biodiversity
access to genetic resources
for conserving biodiversity
and sectoral treaties
Example: Legal protection of Bulgarian biodiversity
Bulgaria has one of the greatest biodiversity in Europe. Of particular interest is the high level of endemism - species occurring only in Bulgaria and elsewhere in the world. In addition, Bulgaria has a very rare species, many of which are included in the list of globally threatened species.
Under tight security throughout the country have placed 567 plants and 421 wild animal species, most of which are subject to protection under EU directives and international conventions. Using more than 80 species of plants and animals is under special regulation in order to prevent deterioration of their populations in the country.
Biodiversity in Bulgaria is very rich, because the climate, geology, topography and hydrological conditions are very diverse. In fact in Bulgaria can be found almost all European habitat types. To these are added a significant number of unique and representative ecosystems and communities that have significant value in terms of biodiversity.
The State builds and provides the performance and preservation of a system of protected areas as part of regional and global network of such areas in accordance with international treaties on environmental protection, to which Bulgaria is a party.
The Law on Protected Areas regulates the categories of protected areas, their purpose and mode of preservation and use, disclosure and governance. The law aims at protection and conservation of protected areas, national and human wealth and property as a special form of protection of native nature, contributing to the development of culture and science and the welfare of society.
As a main criterion for membership of a protected area to one or another category using objective of management. So are formulated 6 basic categories of protected areas:
2. national park
4. maintained reserve
6. protected area
Ministry of Environment and Water and Ministry of Agriculture and Forestryensureimplementation of national and regional campaigns to explain the purpose and objectives of protected areas.
In the protected areas is prohibited activities contrary to the requirements for protection of specific objects subject to protection. National parks, reserves and maintained reserves are exclusive state property. Other categories of protected areas can be public, state, municipal public and / or private property.
The territory of the Black Sea region (districts of Varna, Dobrich and Bourgas) inclides 179 protected areas, as follows: 9 reserves, 9 maintained reserves, 2 natural parks, 95 protected areas and 159 natural landmarks.