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Bulgaria, Strategy for ICZM of Burgas municipality

The strategy Bulgaria has been developed for the period 2005-2015 with emphasis on the involvement of public institutions, businesses, NGOs and local communities in shaping activities, and ensure the objectives and priorities of regional development in particular - integrated management of coastal areas with emphasis on operational coordination in planning and implementing regional policies.
Improved governance and decision-making are important benefits for authorities as these affect the economic, social and environmental outcomes of their decisions. The ICZM approach and in particular stakeholder participation, leads to less conflicts between coastal managers, developers, governments and other involved parties and thus ultimately to a more effective process.

 

Turkey, Cirali Village Coastal Management Plan

The Coastal Zone Management and Tourism Project at  Belek and Cirali remains one of the most important coastal tourism management projects started after 1990 in Turkey. One key aspect of this project is that it did not remained at the academic or planning level, but reached its implementation to quite some extend. From this point of view the studies carried out in Cirali are far ahead of other coastal zone management programs in the country.

Cirali Coastal Zone Management is a part of the project “Tourism and Coastal Zone Management of Turkey”. The executor of the project is the Association for the Protection of Natural Life which had been active in the environmental protection activities in Cirali since 1994. The project started in 1997 by the support of different international institutions was predicted to long for three years. The Ministry of Environment and The Minsitry of Culture and Tourism have also supported the project in Ciralı which was carried out under the “LIFE” program of European Union for 3rd World Countries. United Nations has awarded the project for the Best Practice of HABITAT 2000.

The objective of the project was achieving sustainable and balanced development in the two coastal zones in Antalya one big (Belek)and other smaller (Cirali),   protection of bio-diversity and natural resources. In the studies started by World Bank and Association for the Protection of Natural Life in 1995 the objectives were to; raising awareness on sustainable and balanced development among local people, providing cooperation and coordination between relevant institutions, to provide new ways of living at  local level to reduce the pressure on natural resources to minimum, provide participation of locals to the activities for the protection of coastal zone, to provide an active means of monitoring and to help actualize the national and international regulations on coasts. The selection of two settlements of different size was to form a model for other regions.

Specific objective of the project was defined as preparing a management plan for Belek which is under intensive pressure of the tourism, and improving the traditional and common new ways of living for Cirali which is not under strong pressure yet and has comparatively unspoiled nature. (Duru, 2003).

The project activities included: Preparation of reconstruction plan for protection, developing environment friendly tourism, supporting ecological agriculture, training local people and children to raise awareness, providing courses for the young, establishing sports activities, studies to protect turtles, observation of the flora and fauna of the region, reconstruction of school toilets, drawing business facilities beyond the coast, providing environment lessons in primary schools, beach cleaning activities.

The most important phase of the Ciralı coastal zone management project is the preparation stage of the implementation plan, completed in the year 2001 and introducing the legal, administrative, physical, social, cultural and spatial characteristics of the region. It identifies objectives,  problems and limitations and address the implementation tools and the activities to be carried out. The plan also mentions organizational options to provide cooperation and monitoring for the implementation of the coastal zone management plan.

To carry out the management plan it predicts utilizing; Ciralı Reconstruction Plan for Protection, relevant rules and regulations, Cooperative of Cirali.

The scope of suggested activities in the Coastal Zone Management Plan are; development of organic farming and ecotourism, observing and monitoring environmental pollution, protection of environmental values, supervision of construction activities and housing, infrastructure services, tourism investments and organising Cirali Festival. Among the issues to be emphasized by the plan is developing alternative economic activities to decrease the dependence of the local economy on tourism and the pressure of tourism on the nature. For this purpose, it is recommended to develop eco-tourism e.g. linked to organic farming. (Duru, 2003).       

The findings acquired particularly at Çirali could reflect the most typicial problems of coastal zones of Turkey and the new means and ways to overcome those problems.

 

 

Cirali beach, Turkey (photo: Claudia Coman)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cirali beach – Olympos  - Turkey  (photo: Claudia Coman)

Turkey,  İzmir Bay Coastal Zone Management Program

Izmir Bay Coastal Zone Management Program is the first management program for specific coastal zone in Turkey. The program carried out within Mediterranean Action Plan was later followed up by the port areas of Iskenderun and Mersin. The program planned to be accomplished in the year 1993 was the first field mission of Mediterranean Action Plan. The program followed the coastal zone management principles of 1992 Rio Conference. The studies also supported by the Metropolitan Municipality of Izmir had two objectives.

  1. Elimination  of the environmental problems affecting Izmir Bay
  2. Implementation of Integrated coastal Zone Management in the region.

During the implementation of the integrated coastal zone management in Izmir,
educational studies of geographical information system were carried out together.
In accordance with the general objective empowering local units to participate in the management activities, training experts have also been anticipated. Completion of the waste treatment project to eliminate pollution in Izmir Bay is another matter in the program. Central authority, provincial governorship, Metropolitan Municipality of Izmir and four district municipalities had a say in the management of resource system and providing cooperation. In the same manner it was out of question that a single institution to be responsible for the environmental management. Central authority had the major active role in great investments as building or directing roads and industrial facilities. Experts of UNEP-MAP PAP have also participated. {The United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), Mediterranean Action Plan (MAP)}
Activities carried out in Izmir within Mediterranean Action Plan can be summarized as;

  1. Observation and control of pollution,
  2. Studies to be carried out on climate change,
  3. Utilization of geographical information systems in urban planning and development programs,
  4. Evaluation of the environmental effect of the project waste water catchment and treatment,
  5. Efforts for the recovery of Izmir Bay,
  6. starting integrated planning works, including urban development

It is emphasized that in the successful development of Izmir city since 1993 revealing some positive signals, Izmir Bay Coastal Management Program also has a share along with the changes in the management of provincial governorship and municipality. That the Structural Plan of Izmir has also the traces of coastal management plan in great deal, is another subject of emphasize. Formation of an active observation and control program for Izmir Bay inspection of coal for heating by the coordination of the municipality and provincial governorship are the other matters for success. The interrelation between central government, local authority and also private sector has increased, but public support and participation for the Coastal Zone Management of Izmir Bay was of a very low level (Duru 2003).