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An overview

In this module we presented you the principles of ICZM, i.e., the reasons why it is on the world's agenda, what it consists of and how it could be put into practice. The adjacent shows the issues we discussed and how they are related. The practise component consists of the grey shaded boxes (Initiation - Planning - Implementation - Monitoring and Evaluation). The practise is iterative and cyclic, hence the two headed arrows. Above it, are the issues behind the practise. Below it are listed a number of methods, tools and techniques to support the process. Their position relative to shaded boxes, illustrates when they might be useful.

The process

The following scheme indicates how and when the matter illustrated in this module is applied. A group of individuals, politicians or managers realize the need for an integrated approach to coastal management and the benefits it will have for the users of the coastal zone. They can initiate the process by creating a "proposal document" which will support awareness raising among users and decision-makers. During the planning stage, the causes of the issues at hand are described in a "coastal profile". Based on that, a policy must be developed to face to problem. Central to this policy are the arrangements of institutional, legal and financial issues to support the necessary integration of management that will take place in the future. The proposed policies must be evaluated for their effects; for quick approval it must demonstrate the benefits integrated management has relative to sectoral management. Once a decision is taken, the program will be implemented and continually monitored and evaluated. As more knowledge about the coastal system becomes available, new projects, policies, strategies, plans, programmes (or whatever) may be initiated, or incorporated within the existing one.

The support

The process must be supported by a set of methods, tools and techniques. Each of them is usable during a single, several, or all stages described above. Note that what is shown in the scheme, is only an indication. The scheme is not exhaustive and the usefulness of certain methods, tools or techniques might differ from project to project.

Policy analyses is the technique which structures strategy development and evaluation during the first stages. Policy tools support the implementation of ICZM based on regulations and economical guidance.
Database management and GIS techniques are of importance during almost the whole process. Environmental assessment techniques must be used to evaluate the effects of the ICZM program (Planning), or to evaluate the effects of projects carried out within a ICZM program (Implementation). Remote sensing techniques are useful for monitoring spatial processes and support the evaluation of ICZM projects.