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ICZM / Initiation
Recognition of the need
The need for ICZM can be recognized as a result of an
environmental crisis - existing or projected -, or as
result of perceived economical opportunities and the decisions
that have to be taken. The realization that ICZM needs
to be started can be enhanced by external influences such
as international consensus to promote ICZM.
Eventually, political decisions are needed to initiate
ICZM. Therefore, the decision-makers must be provided
with information which shows them the urgency and benefits
of such an integrated approach. The level of the decision
makers to approach - local, provincial, national - depends
on the geographical scope of the problem(s) on which
the process will focus.
Initiation of ICZM in the Kastela Bay
The environmental problems and social conflicts prompted
numerous initiatives, activities and projects aimed at
the improvement of the situation in the Kastela Bay in
the last 30 years. These initiatives mostly came from
the scientific community, but also from the local authorities
and affected population.
The most important initiative was the National Project
Environmental Management of the Kastela Bay initiated
in 1989. In the same year, the Mediterranean Action
Plan (MAP) and the Mediterranean Environmental Technical
Assistance Programme (METAP) joined the national initiative.
This information can be provided, among other things,
with a proposal document. Such a document should contain
an overview of:
For the proposal to be successful, it must be presented,
not as a threat to existing management structures, but
as an opportunity to strengthen their interaction and
help attain common objectives.
- the problems to be solved (urgency),
- the limitations of the current sectoral approach,
- what the ICZM process will mean,
- the overall improvements that ICZM will obtain
with reference to the first point,
- the steps needed to make ICZM operational, including
a workplan, a timetable and costs, and, finally
- identification of the co-ordinating mechanism (who
will steer the process?) and its role.
Objectives and Organizations in Kastela Bay
The general objectives of the national project were (1)
to identify the causes of the present situation and trends,
(2) to assess their impacts and significance, and (3)
to develop alternatives for sustainable development. The
University of Split in co-operation with the Croatian
Academy of Arts and Sciences in Zagreb under the assistance
of PAP/RAC were assigned to implement it.
The MAP aimed to integrate
environmental concerns into development planning. Here
and the BP/RAC, in co-operation with the Institute for
Oceanography and Fisheries in Split, and the Faculty
of Civil Engineering of the University of Split took
up the assignment.
The METAP agreed
to support the programme of implementation of the Integrated
Ecological Project Split-Solin-Kastela-Trogir: Infrastructure
Programme. This programme of construction of urban
infrastructure was proposed by a number of local institutions,
headed by the Faculty of Civil Engineering of the University
of Split, and in co-operation with the Enterprise of
Construction of Split.
Involving users and public
This is also the stage to involve the users and the public;
ICZM will be designed to obtain sustainable and 'democratic'
use of the coastal resources for them and it is
best to involve them as early as possible. A possibility
to involve them is to create a coastal users group; a
NGO body which is informed about the progress of projects
and which can inform and advice politicians about the
decisions to be taken. Such a group consists of delegates
of all users of the coastal zone under consideration.
Thus the group might contain people representing large
industry, commercial fishery and tourist resort developers.
In addition, producers of handicraft, artisanal fishery
and tourists themselves should be invited to include as
much as possible.
There is discussion whether ICZM must or should have a
top-down or bottom-up approach. IPCC93
mentions a study of 23 cases and concluded that the majority
were initiated by a top-down approach. This occurred in
urban and rural settings, and traditional and modern cultural
settings. Areas with market economies all featured top-down
approaches, areas with subsistence economies had both
top-down and bottom-up approaches. The research suggests
that local groups are most willing to act when they perceive
themselves to be direct stakeholders.
Kastela Bay from the town of Trogir.