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Monitoring

The monitoring program starts as soon as the ICZM program is operational. Monitoring procedures constantly gather information which is consequently evaluated and fed back into the other stage and may lead to the notion that a policy has to be changed. The type of monitoring greatly depends on the objectives of the ICZM program which therefore need to be clear. 

A good coastal monitoring system covers the whole area of interest and during a prolonged period of time. Budget is usually limited, and it is stressed that it is better to have many low quality data (covering the whole coastal system) instead of few high quality data (covering only a few spots).

Monitoring in Kastela Bay

In the framework of the National Programme, a register of pollutants was elaborated in co-operation with CAMP Kastela Bay. It was for the first time in the history of this area that such a register was made. Data on all important water pollutants and solid waste producers were collected. 37 Polluters, including all industrial plants, hospitals and other public health institutions, as well as large service companies, the waste waters of which directly or indirectly enter the study area, were registered. The register of solid industrial waste included 51 enterprises from the wider area of Split. 
The type of data being monitored can be
  • social; e.g., birth rate, health, quality of life
  • economical; e.g., income, number of industrial companies, transport volume between two regions
  • ecological; e.g., number of a single plant, "health" of a population, number of offspring
  • physical: e.g., position of coastline, depth of a channel, size of the dunes
The data may already being filed at several separate institutes. In that case, the priority is to gather this data at a central point where it can be used for evaluation. Or, the data is not recorded yet and monitoring programs have to be designed and implemented. The latter need to be facilitated by scientific researchers and their institutes. These professionals might have to be trained in the appropriate skills. In this stage, remote sensing and GIS techniques often play an important role because these techniques have the ability to provide and process high quality data relatively cheap.
This kind of registers of polluters provided the basis for the organisation of the monitoring activities. In order to elaborate appropriate monitoring programme, a detailed study of the natural characteristics of the sea and coastal area was elaborated. The result of this sectoral studies was a programme of targeted monitoring of the Bay, directed to the monitoring of air, surface water for 3 rivers, soil, sea water quality, urban and industrial waste waters and solid industrial wastes monitoring.

What regards the Integrated Ecological Project, monitoring of the activities is done by the responsible ECO-Kastela Bay agency. The only problem encountered so far in the implementation of the Kastela/Trogir sewerage system regards a delay in the preparation of the project documentation due to local problems relative to the location of the treatment plant. At present, alternative solutions of this sewerage system are being studied. The other projects are being implemented according the plan. 

Evaluation

Next, the data gathered is used to analyse to what extent the actions as result of the ICZM program addresses or solves problems that were identified by its objectives. If the evaluation leads to adaptation of the operation of the ICZM program, care should be taken that these new or adapted policies are evaluated in advance (EIA).

A number of level goals can be identified (Cicin-Sain et al., 1998):

  • 1st order: formalized institutional arrangements and constituencies (e.g., establishing an agency)
  • 2nd order: mitigation of adverse behaviour and implementation of development actions (e.g., reduce number of buildings on the beach)
  • 3rd order: improvements in social and environmental indicators (e.g., raise of income of the people)
  • 4th order: sustainable resource use and improvement in quality of life (e.g., sustainable exploitation of natural resources)
The highest (4th) order goal, can - by definition - not be attained on the short term (years), and should not be expected to during the first evaluations.

Two types of evaluation can be distinguished. Continually, the operation is monitored by the ICZM agency to help improve the management and policies. From time to time - every couple of years - a larger evaluation can be done to show the "public" how the program operates. This helps to gain and keep support for the continuity of the ICZM program.