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ICZM / Monitoring and Evaluation
The monitoring program starts as soon as the ICZM program
is operational. Monitoring procedures constantly gather
information which is consequently evaluated and fed back
into the other stage and may lead to the notion that a
policy has to be changed. The type of monitoring greatly
depends on the objectives of the ICZM program which therefore
need to be clear.
A good coastal monitoring system covers the whole area
of interest and during a prolonged period of time. Budget
is usually limited, and it is stressed that it is better
to have many low quality data (covering the whole coastal
system) instead of few high quality data (covering only
a few spots).
Monitoring in Kastela Bay
In the framework of the National Programme, a register
of pollutants was elaborated in co-operation with CAMP
Kastela Bay. It was for the first time in the history
of this area that such a register was made. Data on all
important water pollutants and solid waste producers were
collected. 37 Polluters, including all industrial plants,
hospitals and other public health institutions, as well
as large service companies, the waste waters of which
directly or indirectly enter the study area, were registered.
The register of solid industrial waste included 51 enterprises
from the wider area of Split.
|The type of data being monitored
The data may already being filed at several separate institutes.
In that case, the priority is to gather this data at a
central point where it can be used for evaluation. Or,
the data is not recorded yet and monitoring programs have
to be designed and implemented. The latter need to be
facilitated by scientific researchers and their institutes.
These professionals might have to be trained in the appropriate
skills. In this stage, remote sensing and GIS techniques
often play an important role because these techniques
have the ability to provide and process high quality data
- social; e.g., birth rate, health, quality of life
- economical; e.g., income, number of industrial
companies, transport volume between two regions
- ecological; e.g., number of a single plant, "health"
of a population, number of offspring
- physical: e.g., position of coastline, depth of
a channel, size of the dunes
of registers of polluters provided the basis for the organisation
of the monitoring activities. In order to elaborate appropriate
monitoring programme, a detailed study of the natural
characteristics of the sea and coastal area was elaborated.
The result of this sectoral studies was a programme of
targeted monitoring of the Bay, directed to the monitoring
of air, surface water for 3 rivers, soil, sea water quality,
urban and industrial waste waters and solid industrial
What regards the Integrated Ecological Project, monitoring
of the activities is done by the responsible ECO-Kastela
Bay agency. The only problem encountered so far in the
implementation of the Kastela/Trogir sewerage system
regards a delay in the preparation of the project documentation
due to local problems relative to the location of the
treatment plant. At present, alternative solutions of
this sewerage system are being studied. The other projects
are being implemented according the plan.
Next, the data gathered is used to analyse to what extent
the actions as result of the ICZM program addresses or
solves problems that were identified by its objectives.
If the evaluation leads to adaptation of the operation
of the ICZM program, care should be taken that these new
or adapted policies are evaluated in advance (EIA).
A number of level goals can be identified (Cicin-Sain et al., 1998):
The highest (4th) order goal, can - by definition - not
be attained on the short term (years), and should not
be expected to during the first evaluations.
- 1st order: formalized institutional arrangements
and constituencies (e.g., establishing an agency)
- 2nd order: mitigation of adverse behaviour and
implementation of development actions (e.g., reduce
number of buildings on the beach)
- 3rd order: improvements in social and environmental
indicators (e.g., raise of income of the people)
- 4th order: sustainable resource use and improvement
in quality of life (e.g., sustainable exploitation
of natural resources)
Two types of evaluation can be distinguished. Continually,
the operation is monitored by the ICZM agency to help
improve the management and policies. From time to time
- every couple of years - a larger evaluation can be
done to show the "public" how the program operates.
This helps to gain and keep support for the continuity
of the ICZM program.