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ICZM / Stages
The implementation of ICZM in a region usually requires
a number of stages. In this learner we discern the following
stages: Initiation, Planning, Implementation and Monitoring
and Evaluation. Each consists of a number of tasks which
are part of that stage. However, the precise definition
of what should be done during which stage, or even how
many stages exist, is not a fixed truth. The focus will
be different in each case, as it will have particular
physical, social, economical, cultural and/or political
backgrounds. However, we believe that the description
that will follow in the next sections will be useful for
starting and understanding ICZM in your region as many
aspects are discussed and can be used to tailor a program
to your region.
A Croatian Case: Kastela Bay
While introducing you to the practicalities of ICZM, we'll
describe a real world case as an illustration of the dull
texts. This real world case "Kastela Bay" is situated
in South-East Europe, Croatia.
It is the largest bay of the central coast of Croatia.
It represents an economic and territorial unity around
Split, the second largest city of the country. In the
mid eighties, this area became one of the largest and
most widely known pollution “hot spot” areas in the
Mediterranean region. In less than four decades, the
area turned from a pristine area of high tourist potential
into an area with highly degraded natural ecosystems.
As illustrated in the graph below (and in the CoastLearn
logo!) these stages must be considered as an iterative
and circular approach. Iterative because during any stage
it may become clear that the former stage was not done
properly. Circular because during the ICZM process improves
the understanding of the Coastal System and new development
opportunities and threats will come into being. These
will have to be addressed through all four stages again.
Such a new cycle might be a 'project" handled within the
existing ICZM process, or a "policy" if the scope of the
existing ICZM program must change, or anything between.
Kastela Bay from the mountain of Kozjak.
policy or project?
this learner, we will talk about an ICZM program. Terms
which you will find in other information sources are:
plan, programme, project, policy and strategy. In our
opinion, these terms reflect the focus ICZM has in the
situation of the person or institute who uses the word.
We consider the word "program" as a more or less neutral
word. A "plan" or "project" refers to a specific site
with a specific problem, whereas "policy" refers to general
management problems. In the next sections, you could replace
all occurrences of the word program with any other.
of the past 4 decades of this area was based on the practice
of exploiting the natural resources as being of unlimited
capacity. This led to fast industrialization and urbanization
without development of appropriate urban infrastructure,
in particular waste water treatment. Waste waters were
disposed untreated into the sea and only 25% of the population of the
3 towns was served by a sewerage system, resulting
in numerous ecological problems and social conflicts.
Location of the Kastela Bay, Croatia