- Agenda 21 is a comprehensive plan of action
to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations
of the United Nations Governments System, and Major
Groups in every area in which humans impact the environment.
- Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea Region
An agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea region is the Baltic
21. A regional multi-stakeholder process for sustainable
development initiated in 1996 by the Prime Ministers
from the eleven member states of the Council of the
Baltic Sea States (CBSS). Baltic 21 members are the
CBSS member states, the European Commission, intergovernmental
organizations, international financial institutions,
international sub regional, city and business community
networks and other international non-governmental
- Alpine Convention
Convention on the Protection of the Alps (1991).
- Barcelona convention
Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment
and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (1976).
- Beach restoration
Beach restoration can involve the use of various techniques
to restore, stabilize, enhance and maintain a beach.
These techniques may include sand nourishment, groynes
and sea walls etc.
The generic variety of faunal and floral species living
in the biosphere. Biological diversity is critical
for maintaining the biosphere’s life-sustaining systems.
- Biosphere reserve
A biosphere reserve is a unique concept which includes
one or more protected areas and surrounding lands
that are managed to combine both conservation and
sustainable use of natural resources. Each biosphere
reserve conserves examples of characteristic ecosystems
of one of the world's natural regions, managed for
their protection and study.
- Bloom algae: Throughout the world, large
areas of our coastal waters are becoming so polluted
that they lack sufficient oxygen, one of the basic
building blocks of life. This condition is called
hypoxia. Although this is sometimes a natural condition,
the increased area of water affected, extended length
of each episode and higher frequency in recent decades
are due to human activities. Overenrichment of estuaries
and coastal waters with nutrients, especially nitrogen,
stimulates outbreaks or "blooms" of algae that consume
vital oxygen from the water when they decompose. The
effects of hypoxia include fish kills and shellfish
bed losses. These losses can have significant detrimental
effects on the ecological and economic health and
stability of coastal regions.
- Codes of conduct
Recommended, voluntary codes of behavior. Often best
- Carrying capacity
Refers to the size of a population that can live indefinitely
in an environment without doing that environment any
harm. This applies to plants, animals and people.
If the carrying capacity of the environment is exceeded,
organisms die and the environment may be permanently
- Current account balance
The amount of a resource that is currently available
- Environmental impact assessment (EIA)
Environmental assessment is a procedure that ensures
that the environmental implications of decisions are
taken into account before the decisions are made.
The process involves an analysis of the likely effects
on the environment, recording those effects in a report,
undertaking a public consultation exercise on the
report, taking into account the comments and the report
when making the final decision and informing the public
about that decision afterwards. In principle, environmental
assessment can be undertaken for individual projects
such as building a dam, motorway, airport or factory
(‘Environmental Impact Assessment’) or for plans,
programmes and policies (‘Strategic Environmental
Assessment’). This website provides information on
the European Community’s laws on Environmental Impact
Assessment of projects and the Environmental Assessment
of certain plans and programmes together with other
One of the main aims of a green economy would be to
make prices reflect true costs. At present, prices
place an artificially low value on non-renewable natural
resources and completely ignore external costs - to
the air, the water, the soil, to future generations
and to workers health. The whole economic system is
geared to keeping these costs ‘externalized’. A green
economy would adjust prices to include real costs
and would institute a system known as Ecotax to drive
- Eco-labeling scheme
The voluntary eco-label established in 1992, is intended
to promote products with a reduced environmental impact
and provide consumers with environmental information.
In general terms, ecological regions can be mapped
according to associations of biotic and environmental
factors that directly affect or indirectly express
energy, moisture, and nutrient gradients, which regulate
the structure and function of ecosystems. These factors
include climate, physiography, water, soils, air,
hydrology, and potential natural communities.
- European Blue Flag
The Foundation for Environmental Education (FREE)
in Europe is the organisation behind the European
Blue Flag award. It has become a reliable source of
information on clean, safe and enjoyable environments
for coastal recreation and has made a significant
contribution to public awareness of environmental
- International tourist receipt
The annual amount of profit made by a country from
- Earth Council
The Earth Council is an international non-governmental
organization (NGO) that was founded in September 1992
to promote and advance the implementation of the Earth
Summit Agreements. It is led by a body of 18 Members,
drawn from the world's political, business, scientific
and non-governmental communities. The mission of he
Earth Council is to support and empower people in
building a more, secure, equitable and sustainable
The linked system of interactive relationships among
organisms and between organisms and their physical
environment in a given geographical unit.
- Environmentally friendly material
Materials that do not harm the environment when produced.
- Ethical consumerism
Being an ethical consumer means buying products which
were ethically produced and/or which are not harmful
to the environment and society. This can be as simple
as buying free-range eggs or as complex as boycotting
goods produced by child labour. Products which fall
into the ethical category include organic produce,
fair trade goods, energy-efficient light bulbs, electricity
from renewable energy, recycled paper and wood products
with Forest Stewardship Council approval.
Gross National Product (GNP) is the value of all the
goods and services produced in an economy, plus the
value of the goods and services imported, less the
goods and services exported.
- Green Globe
Green Globe is the global bench marking, certification
and improvement system for sustainable travel and
tourism. It is based on agenda 21 and its principles
for sustainable development endorsed by 182 heads
of state at the United Nations Rio de Jeneiro Earth
Summit. It provides companies, communities and consumers
with a path to sustainable travel and tourism.
- Habitat fragmentation
When native vegetation is cleared for agriculture,
habitats, which were once continuous, becomes divided
into separate fragments. After intensive clearing,
the separate fragments tend to be very small islands,
isolated from each other by crop, land and pasture.
Small fragments of habitat can only support small
populations of fauna and these are more vulnerable
to extinction. Fragments of habitat that are separated
from each other are unlikely to be re-colonised.
Hypoxia is the medical name for insufficient oxygen
in the blood. Normally it is caused by a cardiac or
value representative of a phenomenon to study.
In general, indicators quantify information
by aggregating different and multiple data.
The resulting information is therefore synthesised.
In short, indicators simplify information
that can help to reveal complex phenomena.
The basic facilities, services and installations needed
for the functioning of a community or society. Such
as transportation and communications systems, water
and power lines, and public institutions including
schools, post offices and prisons.
- Integrated Coastal Zone
Management: Integrated coastal zone management
(ICZM) is a dynamic, multidisciplinary and iterative
process to promote sustainable management of coastal
zones. It covers the full cycle of information collection,
planning (in its broadest sense), decision making,
management and monitoring of implementation. ICZM
uses the informed participation and cooperation of
all stakeholders to assess the goals in a given coastal
area and to take action towards meeting these objectives.
ICZM seeks, over the long-term, to balance environmental,
economic, social, cultural and recreational objectives.
All within the limits set by natural dynamics. 'Integrated'
in ICZM refers to the integration of objectives and
also to the integration of the many instruments needed
to meet these objectives. It means integration of
all relevant policy areas, sectors and levels of administration.
It means integration of the terrestrial and marine
components of the target territory, in both time and
- Macro economic
The study of the overall aspects and workings of a
national economy, such as income, output and the interrelationship
among diverse economic sectors.
- Market-based approach
Approaching a situation based on current market
- Mediterranean action
The Mediterranean action plan (MAP) strives
to protect the environment and to foster sustainable
development in the Mediterranean Sea. It was adopted
in Barcelona, Spain, in 1975 by 16 Mediterranean States
and the EC, under the auspices of the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP). Its legal framework
comprises the Barcelona Convention which was adopted
in 1976. It was revised in 1995 with six protocols
covering specific aspects of environmental protection.
A Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development
was also established by MAP in 1995 to facilitate
the participation of all stakeholders in the Mediterranean
- Natural protected
An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to
the protection and maintenance of biological diversity,
of natural, associated cultural resources, and managed
through legal or other effective means.
- Nesting grounds
Are generally safe areas where birds, fish, insects
and other animals deposit eggs or keep their young.
Natural resources that cannot be replaced
within a short time span (if at all) eg. Coal,
peat and oil etc.
The bounding line or surface. A surrounding
- Polluter pays
The Principle that the cost of controlling
environmental pollution should be internalized
(ie. borne by the polluter developer or consumer)
rather than imposed on society as a whole.
- Renewable natural
Natural resources that can be replaced or
renewed within a short time span eg. Soft
pine wood trees
- Regulatory approach
Approaching a situation based on appropriate
regulations or legislation.
To bring into conformity with a standard.
One that owns or holds a share or shares of stock;
a stockholder. Also called shareowner.
Any party that has an interest in an organisation.
Stakeholders of a company include stockholders, bondholders,
customers, suppliers, employees and etc.
- Spatial planning
Planning strategies between the land and ocean
sides of the coastal zone.
Posessions in land. The whole or a portion of the
land belonging to the state. A dependency, a region,
a jurisdiction and a field of activity.
- Tourism industry’s
Something that will be of economic benefit to the
tourist industry eg. Clean sandy beaches, good views,
- Tourism revenue
Money made from tourism.
- Waste collection
Where waste is separated according to its
composition. For example the separation of
plastic, paper, tin and glass. This makes
waste collection and recycling much easier.
- Wastewater treatment
Treatment facilities that are able to clean
and make wastewater safe.
- World Tourism
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) is a
UN agency dealing with questions relating
to tourism. Its head quarters are in Madrid,
World Wildlife Fund for Nature
A regulatory process that divides a given geographical
area into sub areas and each of which is designated
for a particular use or uses.