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Cooperation of actors

Cooperation of actors is an on-going arrangement between two or more parties, based upon satisfying specially identified and mutual needs. Such cooperation is characterised by durability over time, inclusiveness and flexibility.

Potential actors include:

  • Organisations within the established tourism industry, particularly tour operators
  • The government tourism bureau and natural resource agencies, especially the park service
  • Aborigines community that often has clashed with tourists
  • Non-governmental organisations (NGOs), especially those involved with environmental issues and small business management and traditional community development
  • Universities and other research organisations
  • Other communities, including those with a history of tourism and also those that are just beginning
  • Public and private funding institutions and national cultural committees, etc.

Example: The International Conference on Sustainable Tourism in Rimini

The Conference in Italy, 28-30 June 2001 , ended with the endorsement of a charter which promotes crucial ICZM elements such as public participation as a fundamental success factor of sustainable management, treating the coast as a whole, not splitting it into land and sea territory. A workshop entitled "Integrated planning for a sustainable land use policy" analysed the success factors and stumbling blocks of ICZM projects and some of the available tools. These include the importance of involving all stakeholders from the beginning and maintaining their motivation by embedding results from public participation processes into existing democratic structures in order to ensure that personal engagement leads to political impact. In this context it must be ensured that the tourism sector - industry, tourism boards, etc. - and tourists themselves are represented appropriately. Equally important is to maintain coordination of the process beyond the lifetime of limited ICZM projects. Policy tools such as assessing the tourism carrying capacity of coastal and other areas have been developed. Application should start, although further research needs to be done in cooperation with local actors (Coastal Guide).


In Belek, a touristic town on the Turkish coast, a management association (Beytuyab) was founded in 1988 to realize the coordination and cooperation among the investors: The local inhabitants, the official associations and establishments and the relevant ministries (Ministry of Tourism, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Forestry, etc.). Every company investing in Belek is obligated to be a member of Beytuyab. The association is responsible for the management of the infrastructure of the region (water supply, wastewater collection and treatment, communication, transportation, solid waste management, etc.) in addition to other issues such as public awareness, biodiversity conservation and controlling forest fires. The association is supported by scientific research carried out by the local universities for practicing sustainable tourism in the area. This type of cooperation among the actors involved in tourism development has led to the success of sustainable tourism in Belek. Such a system has become an example for management of the nearby tourist areas along the Turkish Mediterranean coast (Belek case study).


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