The benefits of inter-sectoral  investments

The dashed lie (GP) represents gross production as in the figure on pro-active investments. The lower line (NP) representing net production, results from the gross production and the damage when no measures are taken. Reduction of damage can be achieved by pro-active investments in sectoral (deltaSD) or integrated coastal zone management (deltaID). The time lag between the start of the investments is larger for integrated (deltaIT) than for sectoral (deltaST) CZM because the former involves more extensive analysis and planning. However, net production with integrated CZM (NP/ICZM) will eventually be higher than net production with sectoral CZM (NP/SCZM), again because of the external effects.
 (source IPCC93)