- Agenda 21
is a comprehensive plan of action
to be taken globally, nationally and locally by organizations
of the United Nations Governments System, and Major
Groups in every area in which humans impact the environment.
- Agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea
An agenda 21 for the Baltic Sea region is the Baltic
21. A regional multi-stakeholder process for sustainable
development initiated in 1996 by the Prime Ministers
from the eleven member states of the Council of the
Baltic Sea States (CBSS). Baltic 21 members are the
CBSS member states, the European Commission, intergovernmental
organizations, international financial institutions,
international sub regional, city and business community
networks and other international non-governmental
- Alpine Convention
Convention on the Protection of the Alps (1991).
- Barcelona convention
Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment
and the Coastal Region of the Mediterranean (1976).
- Beach restoration
Beach restoration can involve the use of various techniques
to restore, stabilize, enhance and maintain a beach.
These techniques may include sand nourishment, groynes
and sea walls etc.
The generic variety of faunal and floral species living
in the biosphere. Biological diversity is critical
for maintaining the biosphere’s life-sustaining
- Biosphere reserve
A biosphere reserve is a unique concept which includes
one or more protected areas and surrounding lands
that are managed to combine both conservation and
sustainable use of natural resources. Each biosphere
reserve conserves examples of characteristic ecosystems
of one of the world's natural regions, managed for
their protection and study.
- Bloom algae: Throughout
the world, large areas of our coastal waters are becoming
so polluted that they lack sufficient oxygen, one
of the basic building blocks of life. This condition
is called hypoxia. Although this is sometimes a natural
condition, the increased area of water affected, extended
length of each episode and higher frequency in recent
decades are due to human activities. Overenrichment
of estuaries and coastal waters with nutrients, especially
nitrogen, stimulates outbreaks or “blooms”
of algae that consume vital oxygen from the water
when they decompose. The effects of hypoxia include
fish kills and shellfish bed losses. These losses
can have significant detrimental effects on the ecological
and economic health and stability of coastal regions.
- Codes of conduct
Recommended, voluntary codes of behavior.
Often best practice.
- Carrying capacity
Refers to the size of a population that can
live indefinitely in an environment without
doing that environment any harm. This applies
to plants, animals and people. If the carrying
capacity of the environment is exceeded, organisms
die and the environment may be permanently
- Current account balance
The amount of a resource that is currently
available for use.
- Environmental impact
Environmental assessment is a procedure that ensures
that the environmental implications of decisions are
taken into account before the decisions are made.
The process involves an analysis of the likely effects
on the environment, recording those effects in a report,
undertaking a public consultation exercise on the
report, taking into account the comments and the report
when making the final decision and informing the public
about that decision afterwards. In principle, environmental
assessment can be undertaken for individual projects
such as building a dam, motorway, airport or factory
(‘Environmental Impact Assessment’) or
for plans, programmes and policies (‘Strategic
Environmental Assessment’). This website provides
information on the European Community’s laws
on Environmental Impact Assessment of projects and
the Environmental Assessment of certain plans and
programmes together with other related information.
One of the main aims of a green economy would be to
make prices reflect true costs. At present, prices
place an artificially low value on non-renewable natural
resources and completely ignore external costs –
to the air, the water, the soil, to future generations
and to workers health. The whole economic system is
geared to keeping these costs ‘externalized’.
A green economy would adjust prices to include real
costs and would institute a system known as Ecotax
to drive this forward.
- Eco-labeling scheme
The voluntary eco-label established in 1992,
is intended to promote products with a reduced
environmental impact and provide consumers
with environmental information.
In general terms, ecological regions can be mapped
according to associations of biotic and environmental
factors that directly affect or indirectly express
energy, moisture, and nutrient gradients, which regulate
the structure and function of ecosystems. These factors
include climate, physiography, water, soils, air,
hydrology, and potential natural communities.
- European Blue Flag
The Foundation for Environmental Education (FREE)
in Europe is the organisation behind the European
Blue Flag award. It has become a reliable source of
information on clean, safe and enjoyable environments
for coastal recreation and has made a significant
contribution to public awareness of environmental
- International tourist
The annual amount of profit made by a country
- Earth Council
The Earth Council is an international non-governmental
organization (NGO) that was founded in September 1992
to promote and advance the implementation of the Earth
Summit Agreements. It is led by a body of 18 Members,
drawn from the world's political, business, scientific
and non-governmental communities. The mission of he
Earth Council is to support and empower people in
building a more, secure, equitable and sustainable
The linked system of interactive relationships
among organisms and between organisms and
their physical environment in a given geographical
- Environmentally friendly
Materials that do not harm the environment when produced.
- Ethical consumerism
Being an ethical consumer means buying products
which were ethically produced and/or which
are not harmful to the environment and society.
This can be as simple as buying free-range
eggs or as complex as boycotting goods produced
by child labour. Products which fall into
the ethical category include organic produce,
fair trade goods, energy-efficient light bulbs,
electricity from renewable energy, recycled
paper and wood products with Forest Stewardship
Gross National Product (GNP) is the value
of all the goods and services produced in
an economy, plus the value of the goods and
services imported, less the goods and services
- Green Globe
Green Globe is the global bench marking, certification
and improvement system for sustainable travel
and tourism. It is based on agenda 21 and
its principles for sustainable development
endorsed by 182 heads of state at the United
Nations Rio de Jeneiro Earth Summit. It provides
companies, communities and consumers with
a path to sustainable travel and tourism.
- Habitat fragmentation
When native vegetation is cleared for agriculture,
habitats, which were once continuous, becomes divided
into separate fragments. After intensive clearing,
the separate fragments tend to be very small islands,
isolated from each other by crop, land and pasture.
Small fragments of habitat can only support small
populations of fauna and these are more vulnerable
to extinction. Fragments of habitat that are separated
from each other are unlikely to be re-colonised.
Hypoxia is the medical name for insufficient oxygen
in the blood. Normally it is caused by a cardiac or
value representative of a phenomenon to study.
In general, indicators quantify information
by aggregating different and multiple data.
The resulting information is therefore synthesised.
In short, indicators simplify information
that can help to reveal complex phenomena.
The basic facilities, services and installations needed
for the functioning of a community or society. Such
as transportation and communications systems, water
and power lines, and public institutions including
schools, post offices and prisons.
- Integrated Coastal Zone
Management: Integrated coastal zone management
(ICZM) is a dynamic, multidisciplinary and iterative
process to promote sustainable management of coastal
zones. It covers the full cycle of information collection,
planning (in its broadest sense), decision making,
management and monitoring of implementation. ICZM
uses the informed participation and cooperation of
all stakeholders to assess the goals in a given coastal
area and to take action towards meeting these objectives.
ICZM seeks, over the long-term, to balance environmental,
economic, social, cultural and recreational objectives.
All within the limits set by natural dynamics. 'Integrated'
in ICZM refers to the integration of objectives and
also to the integration of the many instruments needed
to meet these objectives. It means integration of
all relevant policy areas, sectors and levels of administration.
It means integration of the terrestrial and marine
components of the target territory, in both time and
- Macro economic
The study of the overall aspects and workings of a
national economy, such as income, output and the interrelationship
among diverse economic sectors.
- Market-based approach
Approaching a situation based on current market
- Mediterranean action
The Mediterranean action plan (MAP) strives
to protect the environment and to foster sustainable
development in the Mediterranean Sea. It was adopted
in Barcelona, Spain, in 1975 by 16 Mediterranean States
and the EC, under the auspices of the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP). Its legal framework
comprises the Barcelona Convention which was adopted
in 1976. It was revised in 1995 with six protocols
covering specific aspects of environmental protection.
A Mediterranean Commission for Sustainable Development
was also established by MAP in 1995 to facilitate
the participation of all stakeholders in the Mediterranean
- Natural protected
An area of land and/or sea especially dedicated to
the protection and maintenance of biological diversity,
of natural, associated cultural resources, and managed
through legal or other effective means.
- Nesting grounds
Are generally safe areas where birds, fish, insects
and other animals deposit eggs or keep their young.
Natural resources that cannot be replaced
within a short time span (if at all) eg. Coal,
peat and oil etc.
The bounding line or surface. A surrounding
- Polluter pays
The Principle that the cost of controlling
environmental pollution should be internalized
(ie. borne by the polluter developer or consumer)
rather than imposed on society as a whole.
- Renewable natural
Natural resources that can be replaced or
renewed within a short time span eg. Soft
pine wood trees
- Regulatory approach
Approaching a situation based on appropriate
regulations or legislation.
To bring into conformity with a standard.
One that owns or holds a share or shares of stock;
a stockholder. Also called shareowner.
Any party that has an interest in an organisation.
Stakeholders of a company include stockholders, bondholders,
customers, suppliers, employees and etc.
- Spatial planning
Planning strategies between the land and ocean
sides of the coastal zone.
Posessions in land. The whole or a portion of the
land belonging to the state. A dependency, a region,
a jurisdiction and a field of activity.
- Tourism industry’s
Something that will be of economic benefit to the
tourist industry eg. Clean sandy beaches, good views,
- Tourism revenue
Money made from tourism.
- Waste collection
Where waste is separated according to its
composition. For example the separation of
plastic, paper, tin and glass. This makes
waste collection and recycling much easier.
- Wastewater treatment
Treatment facilities that are able to clean
and make wastewater safe.
- World Tourism
The World Tourism Organization (WTO) is a
UN agency dealing with questions relating
to tourism. Its head quarters are in Madrid,
World Wildlife Fund for Nature
A regulatory process that divides a given geographical
area into sub areas and each of which is designated
for a particular use or uses.