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Many government ministries and associated departments are likely to be involved in the development of an ICZM plan. Figure 2 shows the various networks to be considered when arranging for coastal zone development. On the right the arrangements between different sectors at one level of government (in particular the national level) and on the left arrangements between different government levels, for government activities or within one specific sector. Horizontally displayed are the various scientific sectors, each of them contributing from their specific backgrounds. Fully integrated CZM is only achieved when the institutional integration, sectoral integration and integration between science (technical research) and policy development are entirely realized.

Depending on the existing situation and the management issues addressed, a structure should be developed for the planning and analysis phase, which fully accounts for the existing institutions and practices. This might prove a difficult and delicate task.

Planning can only be effective if the process of initiation, formulation and analysis is embedded in a proper institutional framework of stakeholders, which contribute to formulation, impact assessment, and evaluation of alternative strategies.

Getting institutions to cooperate in multi-sectoral activities towards ICZM goals that no single institution can accomplish alone is certainly one of the toughest jobs for an ICZM authority.



Figure 2-2: Three different types of integration that have to be achieved for fully integrated CZM
Institutional and sectoral integration enhance the necessary compromises among different sectors and government levels. Incentives for this integration are found in the common need to achieve objectives, the establishment of 'win- win' situations and the need to speed up the planning process.
QUESTION 6

Develop an organisation structure for the set up and execution of an ICZM program including overall coordination and different levels of government (think about the earlier stakeholder analysis)



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