The benefits of public participation are many and it is not easy to categorise
them. It is important to note that public participation suggests direct
involvement of the public and takes place, preferably, in an open discussion
with decision makers.
In general, a number of benefits can be listed like below.
Sustainable development can be achieved only through the involvement
of all stakeholders
Environmental issues can be addressed when valued by the public. It
is important that a party represents the interest of the environment
in the public debate. Without such a party the environment will not
be put on the agenda
Although conflicts cannot be avoided, they are made explicit in the
public participation debate. This makes conflict handling more efficient.
Understanding and Reduction of Public Opposition
The public, being the user of a system, is the only party that can
assess and valuate the impacts of (possible) measures on the functions
of a coastal environment.
If the public is involved in the full decision making process, their
concerns may be met early on in the planning process when changes may
be easier to make, rather than late in the process when even small changes
may cost both time and money.
use of the available data in ICZM process
According to Budd (1999),
public participation and consultation is an opportunity to solicit the
"hidden" knowledge of the wider community and their key concerns.
Acceptance of the public as a valued partner in the CZM process can
inspire the co-operation between citizens, their government, and industries
that is crucial to the success of a regulatory system.
Example: Construction of port in Gelendjik bay, Black sea coast, Russia
on construction of cargo port in Gelendjik bay was taken in 1993 and
in 1995 this decision was confirmed with "Conception of development
of ports of Krasnodar territory". Public contraction started after the
beginning of the reconstruction of cargo-passenger berth with expansion
of territory at the expense of acres, which are part of the protected
area of Solncedar mineral water field.
concerned with the project are:
of general city planning and its transportation system scheme.
of Federal laws "About natural medicinal resources, medicinal areas
and resorts", "About specially protected territories".
influence on Solncedar mineral water field.
of bay ecosystem due to dredging (suggested by the project), construction
of deep-sea terminal, movement of ships and their anchorage.
of importance of the bay as main landscape, medicinal and recreational
resource of Gelendjik.
loss for the city
problem concerning public participation in the project was that the
previous city administration (1993 -1997) was on the investors' side.
body or lead partner of ICZM process or project Initiators of the process
primary organisation of environmental party of Russia "Kedr" (1996
organisation "Public environmental expertise" (from 1998)
centre of Black Sea (from 1999)
of State Duma N.A. Zacepina, group of deputies of council of public
deputies of Gelendjik
of city-resort S.P. Ozerov (from 1998)
of involving the public had no special financing. People performed up
to their own initiative.
reconstruction of the port in Gelendjik bay is not being realized. The
issue of Conception of development of ports in Krasnodar Territory "Port
in Gelendjik" was excluded.
issues contributed to achieving results:
appeal to deputies of State Duma of RF and realisation of parliament
public hearings and discussions
of public representatives of Gelendjik in the work of state environmental
environmental impact assessment (1998)
statements in mass-media
and local meetings, Cossack picket
out of two referendums: 1998 - was declared frustrated, 2000 - was combined
with elections of president of RF, and the question was asked "do you
think, that construction of cargo port in Gelendjik bay will cause irreparable
damage to environment of the bay and development of city-resort Gelendjik?".
80% of constituency gave a positive answer
For further information contact: International KYPZ-centre
Krasnodar, ul. Krasnaja, 19,