- Conflict resolution: way to resolve conflicts by reaching agreement
- Neutral Facilitation: professional facilitator must ensure impartiality in creating opportunity for constructive dialogue between all participants to clarify issues and resolve conflicts.
- Alternative dispute resolution: neutral third party seeks an acceptable solution to a dispute.
- Delegation: local empowerment through memorandum of understanding, legal agreements or budget control, specifying delegated powers and duties.
- Local Initiatives: (bottom up) often generated by NGO's or local action groups.
- Capacity Building: improving of institutional capacity in field of ICZM; provide information and training for stakeholders.
- Referendum: highest level of participation (see Geledzhik bay example, Russia)
could be found in the Thematic Study of the EU ICZM demonstration program http://ec.europa.eu/environment/iczm/pdf/themb_rp.pdf and in the 2009/2011 EU OURCOAST initiative which collects and analyses 196 case studies addressing public participation and ICZM in Europe and devotes one thematic report to Public Participation Practices in Europe http://ec.europa.eu/ourcoast