Defining of Participation Mode

One of the important steps is to discuss and agree the type and style participation at the earliest stage. Modes of participation may vary between minimal consultation through shared working to shared decision-making and degrees of empowerment. Different approaches may require different mechanisms. There are various models, which help to explain the options and around which programs may be designed and mechanisms for involvement selected. As a result of the EU Demonstration project a 'partnership' model has been adopted, acknowledging the following modes of participation:

These are not to be rigidly separated, but to be seen as cumulative options, each stage dependent on previous. Thus together information-giving and information-receiving comprise conventional consultation, while genuine participation builds on these while moving towards joint working and shared decision-making.


EU Demonstration Programme on Integrated Management in Coastal Zones 1997-1999