The way public participation is embedded into the decision making process is not equal for all cases. It depends on a number of variables related to the character of the project or programme, such as
- the spatial scope (transboundary, state, regional or local)
- the character
of stakeholders or definition of "public" (public agencies, local population,
- the time
frame (project duration or ongoing legislation and management for sustainable
determine the way the public is involved or, in other words, the strategy
or technique that needs to be applied in the public participation process.
The correct choice of the public participation technique or strategy in
many respects identifies the success of the activity.
Difference between techniques and strategies
is a general action plan made to reach an aim based on future forecasts.
Strategies focus more on the way public participation is embedded in the
decision making process. When choosing the strategy it is necessary to
identify strategic aims - main activity directions leading to the implementation
of the action plan. A strategy determines what techniques will be used
in public participation.
of public participation presumes realisation of basic actions leading
to the achievement of the main aim.
Strategic planning involves definition of basic actions that do not necessarily
run in sequence, but may overlap and should be continually revised. Strategic
of Participation Mode
the right Mechanisms
As an example;
the strategy of a baker may be the decision to bake bread; techniques
are related to the tools you need for that, like wheat and an oven.
Techniques are specific tools for practical implementation of public
participation. There is a wide range of techniques that can be used for
organising public participation.
The choice of correct technique (or the combination of techniques) is
made within the strategy and depends on public participation aims.
The following six "modes of technique" represent a series of
cumulative options, beginning with statutory requirements, forms
of information exchange (i.e. consultation), through to more interactive
forms of participation.
combination of different forms of participation could be found in Ukrainian
example of Preservation of wetlands in the delta of the Dnestr River,
protected by the Ramsar Convention.