Certification schemes assess a companies overall handling of environmental
issues. Unlike eco-labels, these schemes do not say anything about the
environmental impacts of companies products. Rather, they require companies
to follow preset environmental principles and guidelines they set themselves
as they conduct business. The requirements in such voluntary schemes are
often flexible and open to interpretation and are generally less contentious
than ecolabelling schemes (source the Institute for Policy Studies, Glossary).
There are six components that all certification programs have in common.
1. Voluntary Enrolment
At present, all certification programs in the travel and tourism industry
are strictly voluntary. Businesses can decide whether to apply for certification
and most often companies pay for the audit and other services. It is likely
that in the future, governments will use more 'carrots' such as marketing
and promotion and 'sticks' such as denying contracts, particularly in
environmentally sensitive areas and to uncertified companies.
All programs award use of a selective logo, seal or brand designed to
differentiate their product in the marketplace and to be recognizable
to consumers. Most permit the logo to be used only after certification
is achieved. Many programs give logos for different levels of achievement,
for example one to five suns, globes or leaves.
QualityCoast (www.qualitycoast.info) is a certification programme for sustainable tourism destinations. It offers different logos for QualityCoast destinations, for those receiving the BasiQ award and for its Tourism Bussiness partners. Destinations can exhibit the logos, flags and banners during 24 months. It moreover offers gold, silver or bronze classifications in the 5 fields of evaluation:
- Identity & Culture
- Tourism & Businesses
- Host community and safety
All programs state, at least on paper, that logos might be exhibited during certain time and moreover will be withdrawn if the company fails to comply with the certification system or if the programs themselves adopt more stringent certification criteria and policing has proved difficult. It is estimated that hundreds of companies that originally signed up for Green Globe membership may be using the logo even though they might no longer qualify.
3. Criteria that comply with regulations or go beyond
All certification programs require, at a minimum, that members comply
with local, national, regional, international regulations and many have
criteria that require companies go beyond these baselines.
4. Published Commitment to Sustainable Development
All tourism businesses that undertake certification make a broad statement
about their commitment to sustainable development, although they can differ
widely in what practices they say are necessary for sustainable development.
Those involved in tourism certification programs tend to have policy statements
that refer only to their internal operations. With a focus on water and
air quality, waste and energy use; companies involved in sustainable tourism,
will have broader statements that also encompass their impacts on conservation
and the host community.
5. Assessment and Auditing
All certification programs award logos based on some kind of assessment.
Assessment or auditing can be first-, second-, or third-party, it can
be done by the business itself, by an industry trade association or by
an independent firm like NGO or even the government.
There are an estimated 200 certifying agencies around the world and most
of which are for-profit companies. Some are accredited, they are recognized
by a national accreditation body and others are not.
6. Membership and Fees
Many certification programs enrol participants as members and charge a
fee to those businesses applying for certification. This money is used
to run the program and to support advertising and promotion of the logo
and of the companies that are certified. The certification programs, and/or
auditing bodies. Also charge fees for the assessments they provide and
for auditing services, usually structured according to the size and income
of the company. These fees vary widely and tend to be highest for those
using ISO 14001 or other types of environmental management systems. To
set up an environmental management system, go through a training program
for implementing the EMS and finally have a third-party audit can add
up to many thousands of dollars. This making cost the biggest barrier
to certification for small and medium-sized companies. Some programs —
Blue Flag [link to www.blueflag.org], for instance—have received
government funding and allowing them to do audits either free or at a
minimal cost. However, such government funding may not be available in
the long term and financing of certification programs remains a major
issue for further discussion.