The direct income for an area is the amount
of tourist expenditure that remains within its borders.
Very often, this is a relatively small amount due to
"leakage" - the amount of money that
is drained out of an area due to tax payments, profits
and wages paid outside the area and expenditure for
imports. When tourists demand standards of equipment,
food and other products that the host country cannot
supply. In most all-inclusive package tours, about 80%
of travellers' expenditures are leakage. They go to
the airlines, international companies (who often have
their headquarters in the travellers' home countries)
and not to local businesses or workers.
Local businesses often see their
chances to earn income from tourists severely reduced
by the creation of "all-inclusive" vacation
packages. When tourists remain at the same cruise ship
or resort for their entire stay, which provides everything
they need and where they will make all their expenditures.This
means that there is not much opportunity left for the
local people to profit from tourism.’ All-inclusive
import more and employ fewer people per dollar of revenue
than other hotels (Source: Tourism Concern).
Sustainable tourism towards a green economy (Green Economy Report, 2011)
Tourism in a green economy refers to tourism activities that can be maintained, or sustained, indefinitely in their social, economic, cultural and environmental contexts: “sustainable tourism”.
Sustainable tourism is not a special form of tourism; rather, all forms of tourism may strive to be more sustainable (UNEP and UNWTO 2005).
Tourism can have positive or negative impacts depending on how it is planned, developed and managed. Various enabling conditions are required for transforming tourism to contribute to social and economic development within the carrying capacities
To promote sustainable tourism in a green economy, the national, regional, and local economy should first provide a good investment climate, featuring security and stability, regulation, taxation, finance, infrastructure, and labour. Various tourism stakeholders should collaborate and share knowledge and tools in order to understand the overall picture of environmental and socio-cultural impacts of tourism activities at destinations.
There is also a need for policy coherence, which can include economic instruments and fiscal policy to reward sustainable investments and practices and discourage the most costly externalities associated with uncontrolled tourism expansion. In the case of tourism, government and private tourism authorities
should coordinate with ministries responsible for the environment, energy, agriculture, transport, health, finance, security, and other relevant areas, as well as with local governments.
character of jobs
The seasonal character of the tourism
industry creates economic problems for destinations
that are heavily dependent on it. Problems that seasonal
workers face include job (and therefore income) insecurity,
usually with no guarantee of employment from one season
to the next, difficulties in getting training, employment-related
medical benefits, recognition of their experience, unsatisfactory
housing and working conditions.